ELEMENTS IN THE IMPORTANT GEMSTONES AND THEIR SUBSTITUTES



Atomic Number Name Symbol Atomic Weight Common Valence in Gem Minerals
1 Hydrogen H 1.0078 +1
3 Lithium Li 6. 940 +1
4 Beryllium Be 9.02 +2
5 Boron B 10. 8.2 +3
6 Carbon C 12.00 +4, -4
7 Nitrogen N 14.008 +5, -3
8 Oxygen 0 16.00 -2
9 Fluorine F 19.00 -1
11 Sodium Na 22.99 +1
12 Magnesium Mg 24.32 +2
13 Aluminum Al 26.97 +3
14 Silicon Si 28.06 +4
15 Phosphorus P 31.02 +3, +5
16 Sulphur S 32.06 2, +6
17 Chlorine Cl 35.457 -1
19 Potassium K 39.096 +1
20 Calcium Ca 40.08 +2
22 Titanium Ti 47.90 +4
24 Chromium Cr 52.0 +3
25 Manganese Mn 54.9 +2
26 Iron Fe 55.8 +2, +3
29 Copper Cu 63.57 +1, +2
30 Zinc Zn 65.4 +2
38 Strontium Sr 87.63 +2
40 Zirconium Zr 91. 22 +4
56 Barium Ba 137.36 +2